solar engery

What is solar energy?

Solar energy is the radiant energy produced by the Sun. It is both light and heat. It, along with secondary solar-powered resources such as wind and wave power, account for the majority of the renewable energy on Earth.
The Earth receives 174 petawatts(PW) of solar radiation at the upper atmosphere. 30% of that is reflected back to space and the rest is absorbed by clouds, oceans and land masses. Land surfaces, oceans, and atmosphere absorb solar radiation, which increases their temperature. Warm air containing evaporated water from the oceans rises, causing convection. When the air reaches a high altitude, where the temperature is low, water vapor condenses into clouds and causes rain. The latent heat of water condensation increases convection, producing wind. Energy absorbed by the oceans and land masses keeps the surface at an average temperature of 14°C. Green plants convert solar energy into chemical energy through photosynthesis. Our food supply is completely dependent on solar energy. After plants die, they decay in the Earth, so solar energy can be said to provide the biomass that has created the fossil fuels that we are dependent on.
Humans harness solar energy in many different ways: space heating and cooling, the production of potable water by distillation, disinfection, lighting, hot water, and cooking. The applications for solar energy are only limited by human ingenuity. Solar technologies are characterized as either passive or active depending on the way the energy is captured, converted, and distributed. Active solar techniques use photovoltaic panels and solar thermal collectors to harness the energy. Passive techniques include orienting a building to the Sun, selecting materials with thermal mass properties, and using materials with light dispersing properties.

What are solar panels?

Solar panels are devices that convert light into electricity. They are called “solar” panels because most of the time, the most powerful source of light available is the Sun, called Sol by astronomers. Some scientists call them photovoltaics which means, basically, “light-electricity.”
A solar panel is a collection of solar cells. Lots of small solar cells spread over a large area can work together to provide enough power to be useful. The more light that hits a cell, the more electricity it produces, so spacecraft are usually designed with solar panels that can always be pointed at the Sun even as the rest of the body of the spacecraft moves around, much as a tank turret can be aimed independently of where the tank is going.

Energy Crisis in Pakistan and solar energy

Energy Crises in PakistanIndia is encouraging individuals to develop 12-acre solar farms to sell energy to state. Almost entire textile sector of India has shifted to renewable energy. Pakistan needs to legislate to shift industry to renewable energy to free gas, end energy theft, and meet international emission standards and competitiveness.
Solar sector is the fastest-growing clean-energy industry in the world. Prices of solar panels have declined by more than 60 per cent in the last 30 months. By the end of this year, solar modules are expected to cost half as much as they did four years ago.
In 2010 alone, 17 GW of solar-generation capacity was added in the world which could power more than 12.5 million homes. China produced 48 per cent which is about 13GW, of the world’s solar panels in 2010, in coming two years time it will be the world’s largest market.
The solar feed-in tariff, the price of solar-generated electricity, could drop below 12.5 cents for each kilowatt-hour (kWh) by 2015, equal to conventional coal-fired electricity by that time. Technology including dual meter is being adopted in Europe and US that allow individual homes to send surplus energy generated from renewable energy to main grid online and are paid for it.
Pakistan can cut the cost of solar panels by using silicon in local deserts. The advancement in solar technology in form of tiny glitter sized photovoltaic and transparent, spray-on and thin film solar panels turning windows, cars and most surfaces into solar energy producers. These developments offer unlimited future use of solar energy.
Pakistan should follow the UK, Germany, Bangladesh who can encourage banking sector to finance individual homes to shift to renewable. It will save trillions being lost to corruption, line loses, administrative cost and maintenance. Specially, Punjab government needs to spearhead the drive to adopt renewable energy as the most populous province and support agri-sector.
Renewable energy can be used to reduce Pakistan’s ever increasing $10bn annual fuel imports. By adopting mass transport, Pakistan can cut diesel fuel imports, which reportedly constitutes 80 per cent of total national fuel import. Following the China and UK, Pakistan must return to railway to cut diesel imports by 80 per cent, freight and travelling charges by six times and save trillions being spent on road infrastructures especially mega cities. It can help our country earn billions of rupees annually from railways, as India earns Rs 50bn and UK £6.5bn from rail fares.
Solar Panel Specification

Mono-crystalline silicon solar modules

Model Voc(v) Isc(A) Vmp(V) Imp(A) Size(mm) Weight(kg) No.of cell Size of cell (mm) Efficiency of panel(%) Efficiency of cell(%)
BT10M 21.98 0.62 17.93 0.56 300*290*23 0.9 4*9 62.5*24.5 11.49 18.60
BT25M 21.83 1.55 17.85 1.41 430*430*23 2.1 6*6 62.5*62.5 13.52 18.60
BT30M 21.24 1.93 17.57 1.70 555*445*30 3.0 4*9 125*40 12.15 18.50
BT50M 22.29 2.83 18.73 2.66 645*555*35 5.0 4*9 125*62.5 13.97 18.60
BT65M 22.28 3.82 18.72 3.47 815*555*35 5.5 4*9 125*83 14.37 18.60
BT100M 22.68 5.68 19.08 5.24 1200*545*35 7.0 4*9 125*125 15.29 18.60
BT130M 45.30 3.74 38.16 3.41 1074*808*35 10.0 6*12 125*83 14.98 18.60
BT160M 22.75 8.90 18.97 8.43 1480*680*35 12.0 4*9 156*156 15.89 18.60
BT200M 45.36 5.76 38.16 5.24 1580*808*40 16.0 6*12 125*125 15.67 18.60
BT265M 37.92 8.80 31.62 8.38 1640*992*40 19.0 6*10 156*156 16.29 18.60
BT310M 70.56 5.63 59.36 5.22 1828*1056*45 25.0 8*14 125*125 16.10 18.50
BT350M 50.56 8.80 42.16 8.31 1630*1315*45 25.0 8*10 156*156 16.33 18.60

 

Poly-crystalline silicon solar modules
Model Voc(v) Isc(A) Vmp(V) Imp(A) Size(mm) Weight(kg) No.of cell Size of cell(mm) Efficiency of panel(%) Efficiency of cell(%)
BT18P 21.94 1.09 18.08 0.99 415*365*23 1.8 4*9 78*39 11.88 17.70
BT38P 21.60 2.30 18.05 2.11 426*680*23 3.2 4*9 156*39 13.11 17.70
BT55P 21.80 3.35 18.00 3.06 536*680*30 4.5 4*9 156*52 15.09 17.70
BT75P 22.10 4.29 18.50 4.05 770*680*35 5.5 4*9 156*78 14.32 17.70
BT100P 22.09 6.02 18.75 5.33 1012*680*35 8.5 4*9 156*117 14.53 17.70
BT150P 22.76 8.57 18.10 8.28 1480*680*35 12.0 4*9 156*156 14.90 17.70
BT200P 45.03 5.96 36.28 5.51 1332*992*40 11.0 6*12 156*104 15.14 17.70
BT250P 37.90 8.50 31.44 7.95 1640*992*40 19.0 6*10 156*156 15.37 17.50
BT300P 45.57 7.96 37.72 7.95 1956*992*45 23.0 6*12 156*156 15.46 17.50
BT335P 50.64 8.75 41.92 7.99 1630*1315*45 23.0 8*10 156*156 15.63 17.50
BT400P 60.76 8.30 50.30 7.95 1946*1315*45 35.0 8*12 156*156 15.63 17.50